Internal Audits are conducted to determine if your Quality Management System is in compliance with an accepted standard. A scheduled Internal Audit is a quality system requirement. Any non-conformances found during an Internal Audit are followed up with corrective actions. A Gap Analysis is similar to an Internal Audit, however, the non-conformances are not followed up with formal corrective actions. These audits are more thorough and are not a replacement for an Internal Audit. A Process Audit is a thorough review of an organizations's procedures work instructions to ensure that personnel are following them. Process audits will uncover ineffficiencies and outdated procedures.


Implementation of a Quality Management System requires documented Procedures for a businesses' key processes and records (completed Forms) which show evidence that the procedures are being followed. These processes are Contracts, Order Processing, Design Engineering, Purchasing, Production, Measurement and Quality Control. Process Flowcharts are useful in showing step-by-step procedures and documenting the process or procedure. The organizational procedures must comply with the ISO standard the company is seeking certification in.


An economist, Frank Knight, advised that whenever you face an uncertain situation, turn it into a risky situation. Risk has probabilities which are easier to manage than the unknown. ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System specifically calls out the concept of “Risk-based thinking”. Preparation of the standard SWOT Risk Analysis matrix (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) is a good business practice.

data analytics and data visualization

Choosing and monitoring key performance indicators are critical to every business. Data Analytics is all about chosing an effective visual to communicate your message. Eye-catching visuals will convey serious subjects more easily than presenting a lot of information in dense text. Data visualization is telling stories with data.